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Month: November 2021

The future of IPv4

What does IPv4 mean?

IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) is a popular and broadly used version of the IP. Thanks to the IPv4 addresses, it is possible to identify devices on the network. It includes 4 numbers between 0 to 255, divided by dots, for instance,, and it uses a 32-bit address space. 

In addition, it is a connectionless protocol. That means it is possible to send the message without any prior adjustment between the two endpoints. So, a device can send the data without examining if the receiver is available and with the requirements for receiving the data. 

It is not a component of the mission of IPv4 to ensure proper delivery.

Moreover, it is not obligated to avoid duplicated delivery, keep the data integrity safe or ensure the order. For all of these tasks, it needs a different type of protocol, such as Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

To summarize, IPv4 specifies the format, addresses, and routes data.

For these functionalities, it is a fundamental resource for various interconnecting networks, plus transferring data from sources to their targets. Moreover, if the format of the data is too big, it is divided into segments for better transportation.

What is the future of IPv4?

Since the 80s, when IPv4 was introduced, the progress in the digital field has been massive. In addition, the number of people using one or several devices has increased rapidly. Nowadays, there are almost 8 billion people worldwide, and the IPv4 and its 32-bit address provide just a bit more than 4 billion.

So, here appears the problem. With the deficiency of available IP addresses, network administrators are required to reuse IP addresses. Also, they have to control and maintain their IP address pool very carefully.  

The lack of available IPv4 addresses causes their price to go up. Mainly for that reason, the newest IPv6 version is gaining more popularity. 

Benefits of IPv4.

  • Compatibility – Every type of network device, brand-new or old, supports IPv4, and systems support is guaranteed. Now, it is not a concern for systems to operate with this version. Implementing IPv6 involves upgrades, yet it has to go a long way to be supported the same way as IPv4.
  • Easy to write – If it is needed, IPv4 addresses are way more simple to type manually. Compared to IPv6, they are shorter, which means less chances of human mistakes.
  • IPv4’s prefixes are easy. This is handy for networks’ topology logical and physical. They fit easier.

Moving on to IPv6

Eventually, we are going all to shift to IPv6. At the moment, we are gradually transitioning to the newer IPv6 model. It is a slow process, and currently, nearly every person who wants to apply the latest IPv6 additionally adds support for the earlier IPv4. Therefore, it takes more energy to work with the new one. Another difficulty is that not every DNS recursive server supports the latest IPv6 yet.

The IPv6 holds a lot of benefits, such as the amount of usable IPv6 addresses. Actually, there are a lot more than we could ever need. In addition, more reliable security, the opportunity to apply it directly without a NAT device and forwarding, and many more.

DNS resolution: What happens when you access a website?

Thanks to DNS resolution, we don’t even think about what is happening when we click to visit a particular website. It is actually a complete process running behind the scene. It truly happens so fast, and because of it, we are not required to remember and type the difficult IP addresses. Instead, we memorize just the simple domain names, and we can easily connect to our favorite website. So, let’s explain a little bit more about this interesting process!

What does DNS resolution mean?

DNS resolution is a process that is triggered every time you want to connect to a website. After you type the domain name into your browser, it should be translated into machine understandable language. They communicate through numbers. For that reason, each domain name has to be translated into its corresponding IP address. 

In some cases, a domain could have only one IP address, but it could have several IP addresses in other cases. For instance, one of them could be IPv4 and the other one IPv6. The DNS resolution will request both of them. Yet, it is enough for the user to get just one of these addresses, and it will be able to reach the particular website.

Why do we need it?

The process of quick and easy translation becomes necessary long ago. Before the creation of DNS, each IP address was stored in a Host file, which was manually updated. Yet eventually, the devices that wanted to connect to the Internet increased into a higher number that it was not practical anymore to store the addresses that way.

So, the Domain Name System was developed, including the DNS resolution process. Thanks to it, the Internet nowadays is simple and easy to use. We are not required to remember the IP addresses but only the domain names. 

What is the process behind the DNS resolution?

There are several steps in which the DNS resolution is completed. It is initiated when a user desires to connect to a website, a domain name for the first time.

  1. You write a domain name inside the browser. That is how the DNS query is made. After that starts a process for searching the analogous IP address – DNS lookup.
  2. The DNS recursive server receives the query, and it checks if the IP address is still available in its cache memory. If it is the first time requesting that specific domain, the answer won’t be there. So, the DNS recursive server is going to look for the address in the rest of the servers – Root, TLD, and finally, the authoritative DNS server.
  3. The Root server is on the top of the DNS hierarchy, which is the first stop of the lookup. It gives information and directs to the responsible Top Level Domain (TLD) server, for instance, .com, .info, etc. 
  4. The TLD server is going to provide information about which is the responsible nameserver for that specific domain name.
  5. Next, the DNS recursive server can ask the authoritative DNS server for the IP address of the domain.
  6. After receiving the answer, the Recursive DNS server can return to your browser with the needed data to access the website. Moreover, it will keep the IP address in its cache memory if you want to explore the site later.
  7. Finally, the browser loads the website you have typed.

So, now you know what process stands behind the DNS resolution. An how fast it actually happens! 

What are the characteristics of an Authoritative DNS Server?

What is an Authoritative DNS server?

The Authoritative DNS server is an essential part of every DNS network. It stores all of the important DNS data, including the DNS records for a specific domain. That server could belong to a domain registrar or a DNS hosting provider. 

A lot of authoritative servers cover various areas. They also provide responses to the queries, but just for the DNS zones they are set up for.

Every Authoritative DNS server has two main purposes. The first one is to store and keep the database of one or several domain names and their analogous IP addresses. The second duty of this server is to supply the recursive DNS servers with answers such as the accurate IP address for each domain requested by a user. 

It is crucial to remember that the authoritative server does not cache the results of queries. The reason for that is because it operates with the original data that is stored straight in its system.


  1. Primary DNS server (Master DNS server) – It holds the original zone file with all DNS records. The administrator of the DNS zone only makes adjustments to the DNS records here in the Master DNS server. Every Slave DNS server receives the updated data via a mechanism called a zone transfer.
  2. Secondary DNS server (Slave DNS server) – Every Slave DNS server is an actual copy of the Master DNS server. That means different servers are capable of providing an answer to the DNS queries. It is necessary to note that you can’t make any adjustment to the DNS records inside a Secondary DNS server. Yet, you are going to have added points of presence (PoPs) that could reply to queries of the DNS resolvers.

Authoritative DNS server vs. Recursive DNS server

The Authoritative DNS server contains the original source of the DNS data, including the DNS records. On the other hand, the Recursive DNS server could only provide a copy of the DNS data if it’s still accessible in its DNS cache. That depends on the time-to-live (TTL) value established for the various DNS records.   

In case the TTL has been expired, and the data is not available there, the Recursive DNS server is going to produce a whole new search through the Root server, TLD server, when eventually it reaches the Authoritative DNS server. There it is going to receive an answer with the required DNS records finally.

How to check the Authoritative DNS servers?

You can easily check your Authoritative DNS server by using the NSlookup command. It is a simple tool available on Linux, macOS, and Windows. The DNS lookup for the NS DNS records is going to show you all the nameservers for the domain.

First, you have to open the Terminal on Linux and macOS or the Command Prompt on Windows. Next, just write the following:  

nslookup -type=ns

You are going to receive a list of all of the nameservers for that particular domain, plus their analogous IP addresses. Just make sure to replace “” with the domain name you wish to check. In addition, you are able to check every nameserver separately. That way, you examine if they respond accurately.